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Topic: Keely Information
Section: Harmonies of Tones part 2
Table of Contents to this Topic
DIAGRAM XIII.-THE TWELVE KEY-NOTES,WITH THEIR TRINITIES,SCALES, AND CHORDS,THE THIRTEENTH PRING OCTAVE, ARE REPEATED IN MUSICAL CLEF,
RISIN SEVEN TIMES THROUGH SEVEN OCTAVES, AND FALLING AGAIN.
"Religion and science are the two handmaidens of God between whom can be no real variance, because they are both divine, both complete, both do the work their Lord. If they seem at variance, it is only because the dull sense of men cannot understand the beautiful variety, yet the heavenly harmony of theyr manifestation."-Rev. J. W. Reynolds M.A.
If we strike the twelve as written in musical clef, beginning with the lowest A in the base clef, each key-note, with its trinities, scale, and chords, sounds three harmonies. We may follow with the twelve keys as they rise, and descend by following the keys upward as written in musical clef, each key falling lower.
DIAGRAM XVI.-THE MODULATING GAMUT OF THE TWELVE MINOR KEYS BY FIFTHS IN MUSICAL CLEF, AND THE SAME VEERING ROUND THROUGH TWELVE OCTAVES: THE THREE HARMONIES SOUNDED BY EACH KEY FOLLOWING IN SUCCESSION THROUGH THE TWELVE KEYS THAT ARE MINGLED AND EVER DEVELOPING.
"There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st,
Put in his motion like an angel sings,
Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubim." - Shakspere.
"Observation confirm this: thoseacquainted with scientific progress must be struck with the fact, that of late the more brilliant achievements have been made in dealing with the unseen. The microscopist, the chemist, questioning the ultimate particles of matter; those who occupy themselves with the mysteries of molecular vibrtion, bear the victorious wreaths of successful discovery, and show that every atom teems with wonders not less incomprehensible than those of the vast and bright far-off suns." - J. W. Reynolds, M.A.
BEGINNING with the lowest A in the bass clef, let us strike the trinities, scale, and chords, carrying key-note a fifth higher, counting the seven belonging to its harmony. If the silent notes are included, each fifth is the eighth meeting.
Let us first examine the meeting of the key-notes and their trinities in musical clef; the isolated fourths rising through the progression of the twelve now meet, seven and seven pairing. We must notice how closely they are linked of the higher seven an octave higher, and the four lowest becoming the four highest an octave higher; we descend by following the keys as written in musical clef upwards.
We may also examine the table of the twelve tones gained through seven octaves: the sharp or flat is written to each note excepting in the keys as they unite in succession. Each key-note by fifths is seen to become a root of the fifth higher key-note: thus A becomes the root of E, and so on. In descending, D has G for its root, and so on.
KEY-NOTES. ROOTS. 2nd NOTES IN DEPTH KEYS
MEETING THE 6th.
A D E B
E A B F# F
B E F# C# FC
F# B C# G# FCG Sharps
C# F# G# D# FCGD
G# C# D# A# FCGDA Two Poles
D# G# A#-B' E#-F# FCGDAE FCGDAE sharps
A#-B' D#-E' F# C GDAEBF# GDAEBF# flats
F# B' C G DAEB
C F G D AEB Flats
G C D A EB
D G A F B
If we strike the ascending scales as written in musical clef again, beginning with the lowest A in the bass clef, we see that the second and sixth notes of each scale meet in higher harmony; the sharp of flat of the scale which varies from the seven notes of its harmony is written to each note. We descend as written in musical clef upwards; each third and seventh note meet in lower harmony, and thus all exactly agree in their mode of development. Having examined the scales as written in the table below, where the sharp of flat as before is marked to each note, but not to the keys, let us strike the key-notes, trinities, scales, and chords. The three harmonies of each key are written at the end of each line of musical clef. To descend, we follos the musical clef upwards, as before.
ASCENDING 2nd 6rth
SCALES NOTES NOTES KEYS.
A B F# F
F F# C# FC
B C# G# FCG sharp
F# G# D# FCGD
C# D# A# FCGDA the two poles.
G# A# # FCGDAE FCGDAE sharps
D# E# B# FCGDAEB GDAEBF#C# flats
B' C G DAEB
F G D AEB
C D A EB flats
G A E B
D E B
DESCENDING 3rd 7th
SCALE. NOTE. NOTE KEYS.
A F B' B
D B' E' BE
G E' A' BEA flats
C A' D' BEAD
F D' G" BEADG two poles
B' G' C' BEADGC BEADGC flats
D# C# B ADGCFB# ADGCFB# sharps
G# E A' DGCF
C# A D GCF sharps
F# D G CF
B G C F
E C F
A octave F B'
Lastly, we trace the twelve ascending by fifths as they veer round through the seven circles, each circle representing the eighteen tones, beginning with A in the innermost circle. A becomes the root of E, E of B, and so on. In descending, we being with A in the outermost circle, though it is in fact the commencement of a higher series which we cannot strike. D, its root, becomes the fifth key-note lower, and so on. The keys of A and E are coloured, to show the result of the minor harmonies meeting by fifths.
DIAGRAM XV.-THE TWELVE MAJOR AND THE TWELVE MINOR KEYS ARE
"Others shall right the wrong,
Finish what I begin,
And all I fail of, win." Whittier.
To recapitulate from the beginning, observe, firstly, the twelve major key-notes as they have developed from which themselves in succession, six tones in trinities seven times through seven octaves, each thirtheenth note being the octave of the first note of the twelve that have developed, also the first of the higher series. We may retrace all as stll sounding their tones, the key-notes leading the ear to the six notes of each harmony, the keys with sharps and those with flats being mingled. The ascending and descending scales always agree in their harmoies the key-notes and their trinities.
Secondly, we have the one series of the twelve keys as they meet by fifths through the seven octaes. he keys are no longer mingled; the scales meet by fifths in the same keys and their trinities.
Thirdly, the twelve minor keys as they develope in succession seven times through seven octaves, always sounding their major harmony in trinities, and, so with the major, each thirteenth note being the octave of the first note of the twelve and first of the following series, the keys all mingled.
Fourthly, we have one series of the seven of each of the twelve minor keys meeting by fifths through seven octaves. The keys of the twelve ascending scales are written in musical clef above the former, and the keys of the descending scales below. The ascending scales sound the first higher harmonies than the key-notes and their trinities, and the lower scales the first harmony lower than the key-notes and their trinities. The three series follow out their keys in three successive series, and all meet by fifths.
The chords always agree in their harmonies, and thus the close union of all in seen. The corresponding harmonies of tones and colours are also shown.
"Thou art Thyself the secret of Thy works;
Thou art the key: Thine image bear they all,
Or more or less. And heaven-born music, as
Thine ordinance in air and ear, and in
The balance of the force elastic, with
The gravitating force that holdeth all,-
Music he statute is, which more than most.
Of all that stands on Nature's statute-book,
Image and superscription-Three in one-
In interlacing monogram doth show of Thee!"
Rev. John Andrew.
The above quotation from that beautiful work, The Pendulograph, shown how firmly its author believes that the Almight Himself will be proved to be the key to his works; a belief frequently expressed also in a striking work. Nature and the Supernatural, by the Rev. J. W. Reynolds, M.A. For many years I have been endeavoring to resolve some of the intricacies of natural harmony with the same views. In the pursuit of knowledge it is eminently important to "avoide profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called"(I Tim. vi. 20), and to remember that facts gained from the study of God's marvellous works, that "ought to be had in remembrance" (Psa. cxi. 4, Prayer Book Version), and the truths of Holy Scripture, can never really oppose each other. Research shows us countless varieties developed by trinities springing from unities, and we find true scientific depth in the Scriptural phrases, where the whole earth is continually mentioned as worshipping the Almighty. This truth is beautifully expressed in the Te Deum Laudamus--"Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty; heaven and earth are full of Thy glory."
With our present powers the darkness of ignorance is ever groping after the light of knowkedge. If the field is so vast when we mereiy attempt to harmonise the laws which regulate the visible creation, it widens indefinitely when we attempt to harmonise, by the same laws, Creation with the Scriptures. "God is light," and with His Holy Spirit for our teacher, every line of His word instruct us; "like the ocean, the word remains essentially the same, while the light never plays upon its surface without deepening and varying its hues."
"The real animating power of knowledge ills us with wonder and joy; a joy for which, observe, ignorance is just as necessary as the present knowledge. The man is always happy who is in the presence of something which he cannot know to the full, which he is always going on to know. This is the necessary condition of finite creatures with divinely rooted and divinely directed inteligence; this, therefore, its happy state-but observe a state not of triumph or joy in what he knows, bu of joy rather in the continual discovery of new ignorance, continual self-abasement, continual astonishment." - Ruskin.
"Adore with steadfast umpresuming gaze,
Him, Nature's essence, mind, and energy."
"Speak, ye who best can tell, ye sons of light,
Angels, for ye behold Him, and with songs
And choral symphonies, day without night,
Circle His throne rejoicing; ye it heaven,
On earth, join all ye creatures, to extol
Him first, Him las Him midst, and without end."
Milton-Paradise Lest, Book V.
If we examine the line last quoted by the laws of life which regulate the foregoing scheme, we may compare it with the fundamental therefold chord of the scale of C and its relative colours, C E G C red rises from the fountain key-note which contains in itself all tones. "Him first," the Son of God proceeding from the Almighty, and yet in Himself the Trinity in Unity. E, yellow or light. E is the root of B, ultra indigo, or black. "Him midst," the Almight Father, the Fountain of life, light gradually rising and dispelling darkness. G, blue, "Him last," the Holy Spirit, proceeding from the Father and the Son, Trinity in Unity. The Son of God and the Holy Spirit are the complemental working pair througout the universe; each containing "the seven spirits of life." Red and blue contain all colours in each. C and G are a complemental pair, C rising from the fountain key-note which contains is itself all tones, and C and G combine all tones in each. In Chapter III, it is explained that all varieties of tones and colours may be condensed into this pair, rising from and falling again into the frountain.
If we strike any major therefold chord, and directly afterwards its relative minor, we may notice how they repond to the twofold natures within us of joy and melancholy.
"Joy and melancholy, virtue and vice, are as much the consequences of natural law as the falling of a stone or the growth of a flower." - C. Watts.
"Joy and grief are woven fine,
Acloting for the soul divine."
"All things are touched with melancholy,
Born of the secret soul's mistrust
To feel her fair etheral wings
Weighed down with vile degraded dust.
There is no music in the life
That sounds with idiot laughter solely;
There's not a string attuned to mirth,
But has its chord in melancholy."
The armies of Faith and Science, instead of fighting side by side, too often oppose each other, and as the Archbishop of York remarked in his speech at the last meeting of the Christian Evidence Society, "The undue disposition on the part of Science to me into conflit with Religion, stirs up, on the part of Religion and religious men, a disposition to quarrel with Science." Indeed we all deeply need more solemn feelings of our own littleness, and the greatness of our Almighty Creator.
"Study is like the heaven's glorious sun.
That will nor be scharched out by saucy looks."
All the energies of nature are the results of Divine operations flowing from the fountain of life all the forces of nature are the forces of life.
"Science has a foundation, and so has Religions: let them unite their foundations, and the basis will be broader, and they will be two compartments of one great fabric to the glory of God."
"Science and Revelation are mutually, though gradually, clearing each other; but a little warmth of the rising sun only calls up the very mists which are to be dissipated by its more powerful shining, so a vague and chilling, so a vague and chilling popular unbelief is to be dispelled, not by withholding knowledge, but by shedding abroad all possible light. Christianity has one most dangerous mental foe, and that is ignorance." Ignorance is the parent of Athemist; but we should carefully distinguish tebween "sinful doubt" and candid inquiri, the former of which generally arises from a too great love of, and belief in, our own mental powers.
"Sinful doubts are traitors
And make us lose the good we oft might win,
By fearing to attempt them."
"The owlet Atheism,
Sailing on obscure wings across the noon,
Drops his blue gringed lids and shuts them close,
And, hooting at the glorious sun in heaven,
Cries out, Where is it?"
I gladly convess that my ruling wish has been to feel my own ignorance deeply, and to trust to the Divine Teacher that my eyes might be opened to see more and more the wonders which may be drawn from the Scriptures when scientific minds are led to the belief that Creation and Revelation explain each other. As this conviction gains fround, scientific truth will make a more rapid progress, and "the generalisation of Science will no longer be doubtful, but assured."
"Our aim is to promote that agreement by showing the correspondence between truly scientific conclusions and Holy Writ; by making it plain that scientific truths, like spiritual, have for ever been descending from heaven to man."-J. W. Reynolds, M.A.
In Him we live, and move, and have our being."-Acts xvii. 28.
Spontaneous life has no existence: whatever is developed below, derives its life from the laws which regulate it from above.
Among the many subjects which excite interest at the present time is the question whether the doctrine of Evolution is true or false. Milton had evidently some glimpse of its truth, as we see in the following lines:-
"Air and ye elements! the eldest birth
Of Nature's womb, that in quaternion run
Perpetual circle, multiform, and mix
And nourish all things; let your ceaseless change
Vary to our great Maker still new praise!"
Paradise Lest, Book V.
If the foregoing harmonies of sound and of colours have been rightly developed from the Scriptures, I trust they will be considered as steps gained towards the belief that Evolution is the law of the Almighty for the continuance of activity throughout the universe, and towards an increasing study of Creation and Revelation as mutually explaining each other. According to my belief, the Scriptures must be based on the principle which is explained of jeyed instruments as the conclusion of Chapter II. In the development of musical harmonies the beginning and the ending are unfathomable. It is the same in the Scriptures. No musical note or colour can be separated from those below and above it. Neither can any portion of the Bible be separated: every part embraces the past, the present and the future, developing in geometric progression; as the past retires the future advances. The rests in harmony correspond with silence in the Scriptures, both limiting and illimitable. But there is this essential difference: musical instruments can only be tuned to a certain pitch, whereas the Bible will never need fresh editions or corrections, but as it always has unfolded, it always will unfold, as it is necessary to meet our higher mental powers. I believe that, eventually, scientific minds will arrive at the conclusion that all the energies around us arise from the laws which regulate the life of matter, and cause the continual development of trinities from unities. Continuity everywhere adapts simple laws to wondrous. If we evade the belief in the development of trinities, this scheme falls to the ground. We can conceive no grander idea of the power, wisdom, and lofe of the Parent of the universe than that of His following out His own characteristics, knowing that at any moment, if His lifegiving power were withdrawn, all would crumble into dust. Let us link with this thought these glorious promises-
"The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the word of our God shall stand for ever.-Isa xi.8. "For I am the Lord: I will speak, and the word that I shall speak shall come to pass."-Ezeck. xii. 25.
"For this cause also thank we Goe without ceasing, becausem when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe."-r Thess. ii. 13.
"Whose despiseth the word shall be destroyed."-Prov. xiii. 13.
I have passed so many happy hours in comparing Scripture with Scripture, and drawing from its inexhaustible store the laws which develope the harmonies of sounds and colours, that I feel regret in drawing to a conclusion. Throughout the investigation the truth has ever been foremost in my mind-
"That search and ponder as we may,
While onward still we go,
Till close the right and break the day,
We can but dimly know."
T. Davies, M.A.
EXTRACTS FROM DR. GAUNTLETT'S LETTERS ADDRESSED TO F. J. HUGHES.
After I had sent this work to the publisher, I looked over letters addressed to me by the late Dr. Gauntlett. They show so much interest in the cheme, that I publish extracts from them.
1867.-"Your plan of elicting facts from Scripture (altogether new) interests me exceedingly." "To make out the scheme of harmonical parallel proper for the elucidation of your system, it will if possible, run all true with the harmony of colour, and this has never yet been done, except in a way which has been met with serious objections. When I commenced the examination of your theory, I spent five days at the British Museum, and collated about forty volumes." "I am very glad to hear you have a probability of harmonising numbers by the same laws as light and sound." "What you call rest, I call the appearance and disappearance of a harmonical cycle." "Your series of fifths is quite correct."
1871.-"There has been much witten lately respecting colour and tone, but nothing bearing on your own view." "The new theories in music seem inclined to go tack to the ancient faith of Pythagoras, everything being used up with the modern notions of tonality. Perhaps we may find a great at hand; the present system, limiting, as it does, that which is illimitable, cannot be right."
1872.-"It gives me great pleasure to write to you on this subject. Music deals more with the imaginative faculty than any other art or science, and possessing, as it does, the power of affecting life, and making great multitudes feel as one, may have more than ordinary sympathy with the laws you work upon. You say 'from E, root of B, the fountain key-note F, root of C, rises.' There is a singular analogy here in the relativities of sounds, as traced by comparing the numbers made together by vibrations of strings with the length of strings themselves, the one is the inverse of the counterchange of the other. The length of B and E are the conterchange of F and C, hence they are twin sounds in harmony."
1873.-"It seems to me, from so many curious coincidences, that truth lies within the system." "I by no means resign the possibility of being able to satisfy myself." "There is no insuperable objection that I can see." "Your theory of the illimitable nature of tones, the limits of six as a one complete and perfect view, and the simplicity of the three pairs, dwell much on my mind. I believe it to be quite new, and in one way or the other quite true."
1874.-"I have been intending to write to you with a full scheme, your scheme so differs from any put forth in these modern days. Like all theories-for there is no expection-my plan does not come up to clear demonstration. It is like the colour theory. No doubt symplicity of action is the great law, and the same force that excites sensation with the auditory nerve lies at the bottom of sensation with organs of vision. When I say my plan, I take in the old groove, and there are difficulties to be smoothed, but in a way that might be much grumbled over. One very curious thing is plain; your system meets many of the cases on which our present theorists stumble so awfully. I saw this from the first time I had the pleasure of considering it with you, and on this account never relished the idea of giving it up; and the more thought bestowed on it led to its applicability to the more ancient forms of melody-the little tunes of the old world in the East. These are said to be independent of harmony, but your system is perfect harmony. The latest theorists in Paris are all at was with the old theory, and there is now a petition lying before the governing powers of the Paris Academy of Music, praying for a total change in the teaching of harmony in that metropolis; and this memorial has been signed by all the rising celebrities in the musical world there. I really believe the best mode, after all, is the series of six tones-the two trinities; and the law of 'to and fro' is impregnable. That is all right. I should like term to get into vogue, for it is much more plain and clear than what we call the inverse and reversem or conterchange." "The grave, or rather extraordinary result of your system is, that so much, very much of it tallies with what may be termed the commonly unknown relatives of the tones. You offer affinities which are termed abstruse, and, although admitted, are accepted without demonstration. Why you should be able to explain the much-quarrelled-over connections is beyond my comprehension, and if I could discover the key, the result would be most important for the well being of music. With this view your system always interest me. I suspect it lies in that wonderful adaptability of the order of numbers. With the artificial system, music is confined to a few single harmonical tones-none of which can ever be used without alteration-which we gently coax the ear into receiving." "Your system runs up the shortest way, and I find it of advantage in composing."
1875-"It has often struck me that I have never been with you long enough at one time to grasp all your facts, so as to arrange them as a sequence, or set them as a chain. I should very much like to visit you, and hold a parlance upon all knotty points. Just at this moment I am at work on three hymm-books."
The proposed visit was overruled by the sudden death of Dr. Gauntlett in the following February. To show his generous and candid disposition, I may add that, after I had been for some weeks in London, and we had much conversation, on my writing to him after my return home, asking, "Will you kindly tell me what I owe you for your time?" he replied, "I cannot charge anything, for I often felt, as I walked home, that I had learned more from you than you had from me."