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Topic: Keely Information
Section: Harmonies of Tones part 3
Table of Contents to this Topic
FRAGMENTS FROM THE LAST NOTE-BOOK WRITTEN BY DR. GAUNTLETTE,
DATED JANUARY, 1876.
Dr. Gauntlett's widow has lately lent me for perusal his last note-book, and! feel sure that the extracts from it, which I give verbatim, with her permission, will create interest.
"All theory must be founded on one great fact-harmony; for harmony is the chief beauty of two or more sounds heard together. There may be figure, schemata, and all other niceties of succession and combination; but if no harmony, the music is not beautiful. It is dim, dull, and disagreable."
"Harmony must be looked at in two ways at least: first, up the score from bottom to top-the perpendicular view; second, along the score from side to side-the horizontal view. Then as to its periods or pulsations-its to and from, its flow and ebb. This brings us to rhythm and measure. At the bottom of these lie what is called stress or accent-emission and remission-strong and weak: of these the bar in modern music is an outward and vixible sign of certain facts ought to be in the music, but which, if not in the music, the presence of the bar is of no avail. The bar cannot give stress or accent. 'Wherever there is time, there must be accent;' * but the tick of a clock has no accent. Hullah (or Chorley) should have said life." "The semitone makes music. What operation has it upon the accent or to and from: It creater the call, it supplies the answer." [This point, I believe, Dr. Gauntlett never alluded to with me, and I have feared that making no difference between tones and semitones might be considered a difficulty with regard to the scheme. In the working of the natural laws of harmony, they must all equally be employed.-F. J. H.]"Art (grand and true) does not depend upon the teaching of facts. The head is of less importance than the heart. Unless the tone of feeling, the habit and disposition, be well fixed, nothing enduring can come out of the misdirected artist."
"Teaching in song, teaching one another in song and grace -a double teaching."
"Beauty in art is not sensual or intellectual; truth, heart-feeling."
"Teach music on some principle. Without a confession of Christianity, this music is mere discipline."
"Teach for some purpose-application, worship; not for pleasure's sake, recreation."
"Church music teaches church doctrine."
"Music worship-habitual exercise of-one of the great occupations of the next life."
Dr. Gauntlett was looking forward to the honour of meeting His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh at the Mansion House, on February 22nd, 1876, regarding the formation of a new English College of MUsic, and the following notes were evidently the germ of what was passing in his mind on the views he hoped to express. The reform and elevation of sacred music had been his life-long him, and he was hearing, under royal sanction, to attain a wider hearing for his opinions. Providence interrupted this plan by his sudden removal from the world the day before the meeting.
"The authorities in the City are interesting themselves in the welvare of the new Musical School at South Kensington. Music is not simply a science, nor is it simply an ????? it must be taught on some principle, for some definite purpose." "It must be taught as it was taught in the schools on the hill of Sion-'out of Sion hath God appeared in perfect beauty.' So long as this principle was recognised in musical academies, there were composers of the highest class; devoid of it, the highest order of composition disappeared." "power over music does not depend solely on the mere agreement of 'how to do it." The student in song will never learn the perfection of beauty except from the preparation of the heart. To maks a real musician, there must be a sense of the ever-presence of the Creator of all beauty. The boy-musician must begin his day with prayer, and end it with praise. This made Handel, Back, Haydn, and Mozart. Music is neither dram nor sweetmeat, neither sensual nor intellectual. It is made so now; but in this order of music there is neither joy nor love thankfulness nor reverence."
"So long as music was taught primarily for worship, and to proclaim the immortality of man by the inestimable gift the Royal Pansomer, it culminated to wonders upon wonders." "Noble teachers yield noble teaching, and from such seed the reaping is noble music. To rear the musician with knightly, faithful, and pure feeling, he must believe in his mission and its reward. The law of his life must be the advancement of his art, or rather God's art, given for the honour of the Deity and the elevation of humanity." "The Apostle Paul tells us that we are to teach one another in music, and the greatest doctor in theology, the mightiest defender of the Faith, has been the giant Handel in his oratorio of The Messiah. We are told that 'the nineteenth century is weary of the religion of Christ,' and the bright smile of the English boy and the sweet of the English girl are no longer to be gladdened by the teachings of the holy mystery. The Devil is the strongest opponent to music in its right intention."
I will close this Appendix with a remark once made to me by Dr. Gauntlett. I am sorry I forget where he said it ocurred. "After I had been for some time organist, one of the congregation said to me, 'When you first came, the tunes on the organ were loud and clear; now, the voices of the congregation almost drown them.' I replied, 'That has been my aim-it should be so. When I began, the organ was needed to lead the voices: I have been gradually subduing it, that the voices of praise should be uppermost.' "
F. J. H.
The 18 tones of keyed instruments are represented round this circle, and again below in musical clef. As all, with the exception of G' and A#, become in turn either Major or Minor Key-notes, or both, no distinction is made between tones and simitones throughout the scheme. In this diagram the 12 Major Key-notes are witten thus (?); the 7 white notes of a keyed instrument are here coloured; the intermediate tones, shown by a flat to a sharp marked to a note, are left uncoloured, being intermediate tints.
The Major Key-note of C is here shewn developing their trinities in musical clef. Below each is the order in which the pairs meet, avoiding consecutive fifths. Lastly, C# is seen to be an imperfect major harmony; and Gb, with B as Cb, make the same harmony as F#. The intermediate tones of sharps and flats of the 7 white notes are here coloured in order to shew each harmony, but it must be remembered that they should, strictly, have intermediate tints.
This diagram represents the two last major primaries of a series of 12; 12 of higher series follow, and the two first of a still higher series: the secondaries are written below the primaries, the sharps of flats belonging to the different harmonies are written to each note. Each primary sounds the same tones as the secondaries of each third harmony below, but in a different order; and the double tones are altered sharp of flat as the harmonies require.
By reference to previous coloured notes it will be seen that all these agree.
The first circle are 7 Key-notes, their roots having been the last 7 Key-notes that have developed.
The second circle is a continuation of the first, shewing the 7 previously developed Key-notes are the roots of the 7 higher Key-notes.
Below, the 6th and 7th Key-notes are repeated, to shew the use of the poles F#, Gb.
The Sevens of Key-notes and their scales, the latter written also as they pair by fifths.
The roots of the chords are first written. The Key-note C and its trinities are shewn to have 2 chords. Yhe chords of the 12 Major Keys, as they follow in order.
The 12 Key-notes and their trinities and scales written in musical clef, with their chords added, all rising in the two octaves, as before.
The 12 Major Keys meeting by fifths through 7 octaves; strike each Key-note, as having risen a fifth higher ascending, and fallen a fifth lower descending.
The 12 Major Key-notes meeting by fifths veering round. Each of the seven circles represents a musical clef of the 18 tones. The note or notes, whether in musical clef on spaces or lines, are written here on the circle from which they rise.
Ascending being with C in the innermost circle, F being its root. TheKey-note C becomes the root of G, G becomes the root of D, and so on. In descending, begin with the octave Key-note C in the outermost circle. F, the root of C, becomes the fifth lower Key-note. F is the nest Key-note, and becomes the root of Bb, &c. The 12 Keys in their order are written in musical clef below. Lastly, the Keys of C and G, ascending on a keyed instrument, are written in music as descending; therefore, to shew correctly notes and colours meeting, it is necessary to reverse them, and write C below G. All are seen to be complementary pairs in tones and colours.