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Keely has written many books including three treatises (in 1893?) to explain his system, the titles of which are as follows:
by Dale Pond (December, 1995)
FLUOROSCOPY: When a phosphor or other luminescent substance emits light, it gives, in most cases, an emission according to a fundamental law known as Stokes Law. This law states that the wavelength of the fluorescent (emitted) light is always greater than the wave length of the exciting radiation. It was first observed in 1852 in the memoir "On the Change of Refrangibility of Light" by Sir G. G. Stokes. In terms of energy the relationship states
While Stokes Law holds true for the majority of cases it does not follow in certain instances. In some cases the wave length is the same for both the absorbed and emitted radiation. That is, the efficiency appears to be perfect or unity. This is known as resonance radiation. In the other case Stokes Law does not hold where energy emitted is greater than the energy absorbed. This is known as Anti-Stokes Emission. In 1935 Prileshajewa showed that there is an energy difference as much as 1.1v between the exciting light and the fluorescence of aniline vapor. This added energy is attributed to additions from the internal energy of the molecule. (1)
(1) Dake, H.C. & DeMent, Jack; Fluorescent Light and Its Applications, Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., 1941, Brooklyn, New York; pages 51-52.
CAVITATION: "The collapse of the smaller vapor filled cavities [during cavitation] causes many extreme results as the intensity of the resulting shock wave may be considerably greater than the originating action." (1)
"Cavitation is mainly known for its harmful effects, namely, loss of performance, erosion, and noise. (2)
[For instance] In high-pressure jets, cavitation has for some time now been purposely induced in order to increase their drilling, cutting, and cleaning capabilities." (3)
"... pressure of thousands of atmospheres may be developed at the moment when the cavity collapses to a small fraction of the original diameter. Such collapses are, therefore, bound to cause enormous effects, as high kinetic energies are being concentrated at very small spots." (4)
"To give an idea of the amazing effects of cavitation, it may be pointed out that after a destroyer had rushed for several hours at maximum speed, the armor plates above the propeller were pierced by a hole of the dimension of about one square foot." (5)
"If the cavities are larger than about 10-4 cm in diameter the pressure at the solid [boundary] is about 1000 atmospheres (14,000 psi), while smaller bubbles give rise to increasingly higher pressures." (6)
"While denucleated liquids may have a number of practical applications such as their use for a transmission medium in high intensity ultrasonic equipment, the use of enhanced nucleation in liquids could have far reaching possibilities. If it were possible materially to reduce the power necessary for active cavitation many of the actions utilizing the phenomenon of cavitation would become more economic and practical from the point of view of commercial exploitation." (6)
(1) Crawford, Alan E., Ultrasonic Engineering with particular reference to high power applications; Butterworths Scientific Publications, 1955, London. pg 26.
(2) Hammitt, F. G., Cavitation and Multiphase Flow Phenomena, McGraw-Hill International Company, 1980.
(3) Johnson, V. E., Jr., Chahine, G. L., Lindemuth, W. T., Conn, A. F., Frederick, G. S., and Giacchino, G. J. Jr., Cavitating and Structured Jets for Mechanical Bits to Increase Drilling Rates. ASME Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 106, 1984, pp. 282-294.
(4) Prakash, Satya, and Ghosh, Ashim K., Ultrasonics and Colloids, Scientific Research Committee, Allahabad, India, 1961.
(6) Crawford, Alan E., Ultrasonic Engineering with Particular Reference to High Power Applications; Butterworths Scientific Publications, 1955, London. pg 40.
SOUND WAVES: "The mean force acting on a rigid sphere placed in a progressive spherical sound field has been obtained by integration of the individual contributions from the velocity potential and particle velocity acting on each element of the spheres surface. Motion of the sphere under the action of the first order pressure variations in the sound field has been taken into account. The radiation force has been expressed as an infinite series of inverse powers of the source distance, each term of which is multiplied by an infinite power series in terms of sphere radius. At very large distances from the source the radiation force obeys an inverse square law of repulsion. As the source of the field is approached, the repulsion decreases to zero and then becomes a force of attraction. The extent of the region of attraction is determined both by the frequency of the sound field and by the size of the detecting sphere; lower frequencies and smaller spheres both extend the region. Even when allowance is made for an inverse square law, the attractions may be many times greater than the repulsions in the same sound field."
(1) Embleton, T. F. W., Mean Force on a Sphere in a Spherical Sound Field I & II; The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 26, Number 1; January, 1954, page 40-50.
HEAT PUMPS: It is well known and accepted that "off-the-shelf" heat pumps generally put out 3 to 4 times the energy it takes to operate them.
PHASE CHANGE: Three of the four above mentioned processes involve phase changes. Perhaps the fourth is also a phase change phenomenon.
SVP Cosmology 2.3
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